The Egyptians credited Thoth as the author of all works of science, religion, philosophy, and magic. The Greeks further declared him the inventor of astronomy, astrology, the science of numbers, mathematics, geometry, surveying, medicine, botany, theology, civilized government, the alphabet, reading, writing, and oratory. They further claimed he was the true author of every work of every branch of knowledge, human and divine.

Thoth was first worshiped as a moon god. The moon’s cycles played an important role in Egyptian life. The crescent moon resembled an ibis, the bird associated with Thoth.

Notice the staff, in this case a writing instrument.

“Egypt’s religion erred by turning true angels into gods, to whom they prayed and whom they worshipped. Angels are sent by God and minister the truth to man, but are forbidden to become the objects of worship. Egypt turned mere angelic servants of God into deity and worshipped them.”

Kemetic names: Djehuti, Tehuti, Zehuti, Djhowtey

Greek Names: Thoth, Toth, Thot, Thout, Hermes Trismegistus

Archangel Raphael


Egypt acknowledged one of the exalted angels as “the great scribe,” and identified him as Thoth. His real identity is clarified in the writings of Moses as Enoch. (Moses 6:5, 46.) Enoch ascended to heaven. But we do not worship him.

This prophet Enoch is also known as the Archangel Raphael.  “Raphael is in the South and he is associated with the power of fire, which is apt because of his fiery ascent with his people into heaven.”



India Hinduism


The southern position and his association with fire helps identify Thoth in the Hindu tradition.

Agni is a Sanskrit word meaning fire, and connotes the Vedic fire god of Hinduism. He is also the guardian deity of the southeast direction, and is typically found in southeast corners of Hindu temples.

Agni is considered as the mouth of the gods and goddesses, and the medium that conveys offerings to them in a homa (votive ritual).  This responsibility to convey messages from the gods was given greater focus in Roman and Greek cultures.  Agni is conceptualized in ancient Hindu texts to exist at three levels: on earth as fire, In atmosphere as lightning, In the sky as sun.

This triple presence connects him as the messenger between gods and human beings in the Vedic thought.

The origin story found in many Indo-European cultures is one of a bird, or bird like being, that carries or brings fire from the gods to mankind. Alternatively, this messenger brings an elixir of immortality from heaven to earth. In either case, the bird returns everyday with sacrificial offerings for the gods, but sometimes the bird hides or disappears without trace. 

While bird-like features are not part of the personification of Agni, this concept found it’s way into both the head of the Egyptian renderings and as bird’s wings in the the clothing of Roman and Greek depictions.  Some Vedic hymns associate Agni with the phrase the “heavenly bird that flies”.  

Notice the presence of the goat and the staff.



The Emerald Table of Hermes

Hermes is immediately recognizable by four attributes: a broad-brimmed hat (petasos), winged sandals (talaria), a purse, and a herald’s wand (kerykeion, or caduceus in Latin). Hermes’ wand – a short-winged staff, entangled by two identical serpents – had magical powers, bringing sleep upon people or rousing them from it. If the staff was a metaphor for an authorized message from God, rejecting it is choosing to sleep and accepting the message is to “awake unto God”.  This staff is similar to the Rod of Asclepius, which is used as a symbol of medicine.

Hermes wasn’t only a messenger of the gods, but also the inventor of speech. As such, he is often associated with oratory or interpretation. In Greece, an interpreter was called hermeneus, and today the science of interpretation is known as hermeneutics.

Hermes was the only Olympian capable of crossing the boundary between the living and the dead and carrying the souls of the dead in Hades. In time, he came to be known as “the conductor” or “the leader of souls.” People also called him “patron of travelers,” and “shepherd of men,” 



Do you know, Asclepius, that Egypt is an image of heaven? Or to speak more exactly, in Egypt all the operations of the powers which rule and work in heaven are present in the Earth below

In fact, it should be said that the whole cosmos dwells in this our land as in a sanctuary
And yet, since it is fitting that wise men should have knowledge of all events before they come to pass
You must not be left in ignorance of what I will now tell you
There will comе a time when it will have been in vain that Egyptians havе honored the Godhead with heartfelt piety and service, and all our holy worship will be fruitless and ineffectual
For the gods will return from Earth to heaven
Egypt will be forsaken, and the land which was once the home of religion will be left desolate
Bereft of the presence of its deities

Oh, Egypt, Egypt
Oh, Egypt, Egypt
Oh, Egypt, Egypt, of thy religion nothing will remain but an empty tale
Oh, Egypt, Egypt
Oh, Egypt, Egypt
Oh, Egypt, Egypt, of thy religion nothing will remain but an empty tale

Which thine own children in time to come will not believe
Nothing will be left but graven words, and only the stones will tell of thy piety
And in that day men will be weary of life
And they will cease to think the universe worthy of reverent wonder and worship
They will no longer love this world around us
This incomparable work of God, this glorious structure which he has built, this sum of good made up of many diverse forms, this instrument whereby the will of God operates in that which he has made, ungrudgingly favoring man’s welfare
This combination and accumulation of all the manifold things that call forth the veneration, praise, and love of the beholder
Darkness will be preferred to light, and death will be thought more profitable than life
No one will raise his eyes to heaven
The pious will be deemed insane, the impious wise
The madman will be thought a brave man, and the wicked will be esteemed as good
As for the soul, and the belief that it is immortal by nature, or may hope to attain to immortality, as I have taught you
All this they will mock and even persuade themselves that it is false

Oh, Egypt, Egypt
Oh, Egypt, Egypt
Oh, Egypt, Egypt, of thy religion nothing will remain but an empty tale
Oh, Egypt, Egypt
Oh, Egypt, Egypt
Oh, Egypt, Egypt, of thy religion nothing will remain but an empty tale

No word of reverence or piety, no utterance worthy of heaven will be heard or believed. And so the gods will depart from mankind, a grievous thing
And only evil angels will remain, who will mingle with men, and drive the poor wretches into all manner of reckless crime, into wars, and robberies, and frauds, and all things hostile to the nature of the soul
Then will the earth tremble, and the sea bear no ships
Heaven will not support the stars in their orbits
All voices of the gods will be forced into silence
The fruits of the earth will rot, the soil will turn barren, and the very air will sicken with sullen stagnation
All things will be disordered and awry
All good will disappear
But when all this has befallen, Asclepius
Then God, the creator of all things, will look on that which has come to pass, and will stop the disorder by the counterforce of his will
Which is the good. He will call back to the right path those who have gone astray
He will cleanse the world of evil, washing it away with floods, burning it out with the fiercest fire, and expelling it with war and pestilence
And thus he will bring back his world to its former aspect, so that the cosmos will once more be deemed worthy of worship and wondering reverence, and God, the maker and maintainer of the mighty fabric will be adored by the men of that day with continuous songs of praise and blessing Such is the new birth of the cosmos
It is a making again of all things good, a holy and awe-inspiring restoration of all nature
And it is wrought
Inside the process of time
By the eternal will of the creator

True, without error, certain and most true: that which is above is as that which is below, and that which is below is as that which is above, to perform the miracles of the One Thing.

And as all things were from One, by the meditation of One, so from this One Thing come all things by adaptation. Its father is the Sun, its mother is the Moon, the wind carried it in its belly, the nurse thereof is the Earth.

It is the father of all perfection and the consummation of the whole world. Its power is integral if it be turned to Earth.

Thou shalt separate the Earth from the Fire, the subtle from the coarse, gently and with much ingenuity. It ascends from Earth to heaven and descends again to Earth, and receives the power of the superiors and the inferiors.

Thus thou hast the glory of the whole world; therefore let all obscurity flee before thee. This is the strong fortitude of all fortitude, overcoming every subtle and penetrating every solid thing. Thus the world was created. Hence are all wonderful adaptations, of which this is the manner.

Therefore am I called Hermes the Thrice Great, having the three parts of the philosophy of the whole world. That is finished which I have to say concerning the operation of the Sun.





Mercury (Mercurius) was the Roman god of communication and travel, often serving as a mediator between the gods and mortals, his winged feet giving him the advantage of speed, and so was the patron of circulation in general.  He was also responsible for conveying souls to the underworld. 

He wore a winged helm that Vulcan, the god of forge and fire, had fashioned for him. This winged helm soon became synonymous with the messenger god. Mercury also carried the caduceus, a staff wound with serpents that was gifted to him by Apollo. Mercury was swift and clever, and his knowledge of major events often bordered on foresight.



Notice the presence of the Goat and the staff.

Symbols to look For